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Serangan baru - gelombang suara yang di buat untuk merusak perangkat HDD


Para peneliti telah menunjukkan bagaimana sinyal sonik dan ultrasonik (tidak terdengar oleh manusia) dapat digunakan untuk menyebabkan kerusakan fisik pada hard drive hanya dengan memutar suara ultrasonik melalui speaker built-in sendiri dari target komputer atau dengan mengeksploitasi speaker di dekat perangkat yang ditargetkan.

Penelitian serupa dilakukan tahun lalu oleh sekelompok peneliti dari Princeton dan Purdue University, yang menunjukkan serangan denial-of-service (DoS) terhadap HDD dengan mengeksploitasi fenomena fisik yang disebut resonansi akustik.

Karena HDD terpapar dengan getaran eksternal, peneliti menunjukkan bagaimana sinyal akustik yang dibuat khusus dapat menyebabkan getaran yang signifikan dalam komponen internal HDD, yang akhirnya mengarah pada kegagalan dalam sistem yang bergantung pada HDD.

Untuk mencegah kepala jatuh dari resonansi akustik, HDD modern menggunakan pengontrol umpan yang dikendalikan oleh sensor getaran yang mendeteksi gerakan tersebut dan meningkatkan akurasi posisi kepala saat membaca dan menulis data.

Namun, menurut sebuah makalah penelitian baru yang diterbitkan oleh tim peneliti dari Universitas Michigan dan Universitas Zhejiang, suara sonik dan ultrasonik menyebabkan kesalahan positif pada sensor kejut, menyebabkan dorongan untuk tidak perlu memarkirkan kepalanya.

Dengan mengeksploitasi kerentanan disk drive ini, para peneliti menunjukkan bagaimana penyerang dapat melakukan serangan dunia nyata yang sukses terhadap HDD yang ditemukan dalam sistem CCTV (Closed-Circuit Television) dan komputer desktop.

"Seorang penyerang dapat menggunakan efek dari kerentanan hard disk drive untuk meluncurkan konsekuensi tingkat sistem seperti menabrak Windows pada laptop menggunakan speaker built-in dan mencegah sistem pengawasan dari merekam video," kata makalah penelitian.

Serangan-serangan ini dapat dilakukan menggunakan speaker eksternal terdekat atau melalui speaker built-in sistem target sendiri dengan menipu pengguna untuk memainkan suara jahat yang melekat pada email atau halaman web.

Dalam pengaturan eksperimental mereka, para peneliti menguji interferensi akustik dan ultrasonik terhadap berbagai HDD dari Seagate, Toshiba dan Western Digital dan menemukan bahwa gelombang ultrasonik hanya butuh 5-8 detik untuk menginduksi kesalahan.

Namun, gangguan suara yang berlangsung selama 105 detik atau lebih menyebabkan stok Western Digital HDD di perangkat video-surveillance berhenti merekam dari awal getaran sampai perangkat dimulai kembali.

"Dalam kasus bahwa pengguna korban tidak secara fisik dekat dengan sistem yang diserang, musuh dapat menggunakan frekuensi apa pun untuk menyerang sistem," para peneliti menjelaskan.

"Aliran kamera langsung sistem ini tidak pernah menampilkan indikasi serangan. Juga, sistem tidak menyediakan metode apa pun untuk mempelajari audio di lingkungan. Jadi, jika pengguna korban tidak secara fisik dekat dengan sistem, musuh dapat menggunakan sinyal yang dapat didengar sambil tetap tidak terdeteksi. "

Para peneliti juga dapat mengganggu HDD di desktop dan laptop yang menjalankan sistem operasi Windows dan Linux. Mereka hanya butuh 45 detik untuk menyebabkan laptop Dell XPS 159550 membeku dan 125 detik untuk mogok ketika laptop ditipu untuk memutar audio berbahaya melalui speaker yang ada di dalamnya.

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