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Cara Memindai Kerentanan / Vuln web dengan Nessus


Umumnya, Anda akan ingin melakukan pemindaian kerentanan sebelum melakukan tes penetrasi. Pemindai kerentanan berisi basis data semua kerentanan yang diketahui dan akan memindai mesin atau jaringan Anda untuk melihat apakah kerentanan tersebut tampak ada. Jika mereka melakukannya, adalah tugas Anda untuk menguji apakah mereka nyata dan dapat dieksploitasi.

Scanner Kerentanan yang terkenal karena melemparkan positif palsu. Ini ditemukan kerentanan oleh pemindai yang tidak benar-benar ada. Jika pemindai kerentanan dapat secara akurat mendeteksi kerentanan, lalu siapa yang akan membutuhkan pentester?

Di antara pemindai kerentanan yang paling banyak digunakan di pasar adalah Nessus. Ini telah menjadi semacam standar untuk pemindai kerentanan. Awalnya dimulai sebagai proyek open-source, dibeli oleh Tenable dan sekarang menjadi produk komersial. Meskipun demikian, Nessus masih memiliki pemindai kerentanan "rumah" yang mereka berikan secara gratis, dan Anda dapat menggunakannya untuk hingga 16 alamat IP. Itulah yang akan kami gunakan di sini.

Sebagai peretas, jika Anda dapat melakukan pemindaian kerentanan di jaringan internal, Anda akan memiliki basis data semua potensi kerentanan di jaringan. Kemudian, Anda hanya perlu mencari eksploit yang tepat untuk memanfaatkannya. Sayangnya, pemindai kerentanan sangat "berisik" dan admin keamanan / jaringan yang waspada akan mendeteksinya. Untungnya, tidak semua organisasi memiliki admin keamanan / jaringan yang waspada.

Meskipun Nessus sudah ada cukup lama, pemerintah AS baru saja beralih ke Nessus untuk semua pemindaian kerentanan mereka. Hampir setiap kantor federal dan pangkalan militer AS di seluruh dunia sekarang menggunakan Nessus untuk memindai kerentanan. Ini bisa menjadi informasi yang berguna.

Pemindai kerentanan tidak sempurna. Mereka tidak dapat mendeteksi nol-hari, dan seperti perangkat lunak AV, basis data mereka harus diperbarui setiap hari agar akurat. Mungkin faktor pembatas terbesar dalam menggunakan pemindai kerentanan adalah positif palsu. Pemindaian ini dapat menghasilkan ratusan potensi kerentanan dan biasanya kurang dari 10% adalah kerentanan aktual. Itulah mengapa perusahaan dan institusi masih membutuhkan peretas topi putih — untuk memisahkan positif palsu dari sisi positif yang sesungguhnya. Ketika mereka tidak lagi menghasilkan positif palsu, penguji penetrasi akan menganggur, tetapi saya tidak berharap melihat itu dalam hidup saya.

Sebagai peretas topi putih / pentester, Anda harus terbiasa dengan pemindai kerentanan. Karena Nessus adalah yang paling banyak digunakan, mari kita coba. Bagi Anda yang mungkin ingin pemindai kerentanan yang terintegrasi ke Metasploit, pertimbangkan Rapid7's Nexpose (dan lihat tutorial saya tentang menggunakannya).

1. Memasang Nessus
Untuk memulai, kita perlu mengunduh Nessus dari situs web Tenable. Dapat ditinggikan tidak memudahkan untuk menemukan versi gratisnya di rumah, tetapi Anda dapat menemukannya di sini.

Tenable mengharuskan Anda mendaftar untuk mendapatkan aplikasi gratis mereka, jadi Anda harus memberi mereka alamat email untuk menerima kode aktivasi.

Ketika Anda mengklik "Daftar", pilih tombol "Unduh" untuk mengunjungi halaman unduhan, di mana ia menanyakan sistem operasi apa yang Anda gunakan. Dalam kasus saya, saya mengunduh versi Windows 7 64-bit. Tentu saja, unduh versi yang sesuai dengan sistem operasi dan arsitektur Anda.
Setelah memilih file yang tepat, Nessus akan mengunduh paket installer ke komputer Anda. Klik dua kali pada itu, dan itu harus cukup intuitif dari sana untuk menyelesaikan proses instalasi. 2. Mendapatkan Nessus Bekerja Setelah instalasi selesai, Nessus akan membuka browser default Anda dengan pesan seperti itu di bawah ini. Nessus dibangun dengan arsitektur client / server. Anda telah menginstal server Anda di localhost dan browser mewakili klien. Pada kenyataannya, Anda dapat mengakses server Nessus dari sistem apa pun melalui browser web.
Anda cenderung mendapat pesan yang mengatakan "Koneksi Anda tidak aman." Klik pada "Advanced."

Kemudian, masukkan pengecualian untuk koneksi Nessus pada port 8834.

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